Ekulu PM, Nseka NM, Aloni MN, Gini JL, Makulo JR, Lepira FB, Sumaili EK, Mafuta EM, Nsibu CN, Shiku JD.
Nephrol Ther. 2012 Jun;8(3):163-7. doi: 10.1016/j.nephro.2011.09.004.


In Sub-Saharian Africa, the extent of the HIV-related kidney diseases is less known. Even so, that region is supposed to be the epicentre of such complications. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of proteinuria in Congolese children living in Kinshasa and to study its association with the HIV infection.


By a cross-sectional and multicentric study (in six hospitals of Kinshasa), 194 children were consecutively recruited from August 2008 to February 2009. Among these, 101 naives HIV-infected children and 93 HIV-uninfected children like a control group. Proteinuria was assessed using urine dipstick completed by the 24-hour proteinuria assessment (Esbach method). Determinants of proteinuria were assessed by logistic regression.


The median age of all children recruited was 84 months (9-221 months). Concerning the HIV-infected children, the median age was 76 months (9-221 months) with a male/female ratio of 1/1. The prevalence of proteinuria in this group was in order to 23.8%. HIV infected children have seven times more probability to present proteinuria than non infected children (OR 6.9; IC 95%: 2.3-20.8; P<0.001). Important immunosuppression was the main determinant of proteinuria (OR 10.4; IC 95%: 3.34-32.48; P<0.001).


Proteinuria is common in Congolese children. The HIV infection rises significantly the probability to present proteinuria in children of this study, more so among those with important immunosuppression. This raises the question about the ideal time to initiate HAART in order to reduce the prevalence of kidney injury and to provide the best outcome. Copyright © 2011 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

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