Screening for proteinuria and chronic kidney disease risk factors in Kinshasa: a World Kidney Day 2007 study.

Nephron Clin Pract. 2008;110(4):c220-8. doi: 10.1159/000167869. Epub 2008 Oct 31.
Sumaili EK, Nseka NM, Lepira FB, Krzesinski JM, Makulo JR, Bukabau JB, Nkoy JB, Mokoli VM, Longokolo MM, Owandjalola JA, Kayembe PK.
Nephrology Unit, University of Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo.

BACKGROUND: Although screening programs for chronic kidney disease (CKD) may be of great value, these programs are not yet implemented in the Democratic Republic of Congo. This study focused on proteinuria and examined its prevalence in terms of the number needed to screen for the different risk factors of CKD. Such knowledge would guide the utility of population screening to prevent end-stage renal disease.

METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Kinshasa on the Second World Kidney Day. A sample of 3,018 subjects was interviewed and the following measurements were performed: blood pressure, body mass index, glycemia and urine protein. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify determinants of proteinuria.

RESULTS: The prevalence of proteinuria was 17.1% (95% CI 15.8-18.6). Other CKD risk factors identified were: hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity and metabolic syndrome. To identify 1 case of proteinuria, one would need to screen 4 persons with diabetes, 5 persons with hypertension, 4 subjects having metabolic syndrome, 5 persons aged >or=72 years and 9 persons without any of the conditions mentioned above. Age, overweight and diabetes were the strongest factors associated with proteinuria.

CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that proteinuria and traditional risk factors for CKD are very prevalent in Kinshasa. Realistic policies to stem these conditions should be a public health priority. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

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